Sometimes structures have hidden weaknesses. In this video segment adapted from Building Big, William LeMessurier, the structural engineer who designed the Citibank Center (now called Citigroup Center), describes the decisions that placed his building and the city of New York in danger and those that corrected a potentially catastrophic design flaw. This resource is useful for introducing components of the Engineering Design (ETS) from the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) to grades 6-12 students.
This resource was adapted from Building Big: "Skyscrapers."
Teaching Tips for Grades 6-8
Performance Expectation: MS-ETS1-1
Disciplinary Core Idea: ETS1.A; Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems
Engineering Practice: Defining Problems
This building is unique in its design. In order to build it, various limiting factors, or constraints, had to be taken into account.
After watching the video: Have the students discuss the following:
Teaching Tips for Grades 9-12
Performance Expectation: HS-ETS1-3
Disciplinary Core Idea: ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions
Engineering Practice: Designing Solutions
Not only is this building unique in its design, but decisions that were made in light of cost-saving constraints also created a potential safety issue!
After watching the video: Ask students to discuss the implications of implementing the cost-saving construction technique of using bolts instead of welding. What assessment did the engineers do to evaluate the impact of this change, and why was a new solution proposed? The mathematical calculations showed that the strength of the bolts was not enough to withstand hurricane force winds. Since those are a likely occurrence, a new solution was required. Students recognize that criteria are prioritized and used to determine whether a solution, or its re-design, is successful, part of the Engineering Practice, Designing Solutions.
The Citigroup Center seems to defy gravity, standing on four stilts placed at the center of each of its sides rather than at its corners. This distinctive building owes its ability to stand without support directly under its corners to the design of its internal steel skeleton. Diagonal beams form giant, eight-story-tall Vs that transfer weight from the building's corners to strong columns running the full height of each side. The force of gravity is not so much defied as redirected.
Another force, besides gravity, that is critically important to skyscraper design is wind. As part of the design process, structural engineers consider the force of wind on a building's foundation, columns, beams, and joints. The large surface area of a building is perfect for catching wind, and the resulting pressure can bend and stress a building's parts, possibly to the point of collapse.
Citigroup Center's engineers used scale models and wind tunnels to analyze the effect of wind on their design. Unfortunately, they only measured the effect of wind striking the building perpendicular to one side, all they were required by law to test. However, diagonal winds, which strike a building's corner and two sides, typically place a much greater load on the parts of a building, especially its joints.
Months after its completion, when the building was already occupied, the structural engineer who designed the Citigroup Center learned that workers had used bolted joints in the construction of the tower, rather than stronger and more expensive welded joints. Generally, bolted joints are considered strong enough for most building applications. However, subsequent wind tunnel tests of the Citigroup Center's design showed that diagonal winds of 70 to 80 mph could tear the tower's bolted joints apart and cause the building to collapse. Realizing this, engineers ordered workers back to the building to perform secret emergency repairs. Working for several weeks under cover of darkness, they welded strong steel plates over each of the building's 200 joints, strengthening the building's skeleton and averting a possible disaster.
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