10G/H5 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Radioactivity has many uses other than generating energy, including in medicine, industry, and scientific research in many different fields.
10I/H1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Today, the modern technology of high-power imaging and biotechnology make it possible to investigate how microorganisms spread, how they cause disease, how the immune system combats them, and even how they can be manipulated genetically.
10I/M2bc ( Grades: 6-8 ): French chemist Louis Pasteur demonstrated that spoilage and fermentation occur when microorganisms enter from the air, multiply rapidly, and produce waste products. He showed that spoilage could be avoided by keeping germs out or by destroying them with heat.
10I/M3 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Pasteur found that infection by disease organisms (germs) caused the body to build up an immunity against subsequent infection by the same organisms. He then produced vaccines that would induce the body to build immunity to a disease without actually causing the disease itself.
10I/M3b ( Grades: 6-8 ): Vaccines induce the body to build immunity to a disease without actually causing the disease itself.
10I/M5 ( Grades: 6-8 ): In medicine, as in other fields of science, discoveries are sometimes made unexpectedly, even by accident. But knowledge and creative insight are usually required to recognize the meaning of the unexpected.
10I/M7 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Current health practices emphasize sanitation, the safe handling of food and water, the pasteurization of milk, isolation, and aseptic surgical techniques to keep germs out of the body; vaccinations to strengthen the body's immune system against subsequent infection by the same kind of microorganisms; and antibiotics and other chemicals and processes to destroy microorganisms.
10J/H3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Today, changes in technology continue to affect patterns of work and bring with them economic and social consequences.
1B/H3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Sometimes, scientists can control conditions in order to obtain evidence. When that is not possible, practical, or ethical, they try to observe as wide a range of natural occurrences as possible to discern patterns.
1C/H5b ( Grades: 9-12 ): When applications of research could pose risks to society, scientists' decisions to participate in that research are based on personal as well as professional ethics.
1C/H7 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The strongly held traditions of science, including its commitment to peer review and publication, serve to keep the vast majority of scientists well within the bounds of ethical professional behavior. Deliberate deceit is rare and likely to be exposed sooner or later by the scientific enterprise itself. When violations of these scientific ethical traditions are discovered, they are strongly condemned by the scientific community, and the violators then have difficulty regaining the respect of other scientists.
1C/M1 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Important contributions to the advancement of science, mathematics, and technology have been made by different kinds of people, in different cultures, at different times.
1C/M4 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Scientists are employed by colleges and universities, business and industry, hospitals, and many government agencies. Their places of work include offices, classrooms, laboratories, farms, factories, and natural field settings ranging from space to the ocean floor.
1C/M5ac ( Grades: 6-8 ): In research involving human subjects, the ethics of science require that potential subjects be fully informed about the risks and benefits associated with the research and of their right to refuse to participate. Because animals cannot make informed choices, special care must be taken in using them in scientific research.
1C/M5b ( Grades: 6-8 ): Science ethics demand that scientists must not knowingly subject coworkers, students, or community residents to health or property risks without their prior knowledge and consent.
1C/M9 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Scientists are linked to other scientists worldwide both personally and through international scientific organizations.
3A/H1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Technological problems and advances often create a demand for new scientific knowledge, and new technologies make it possible for scientists to extend their research in new ways or to undertake entirely new lines of research. The very availability of new technology itself often sparks scientific advances.
3A/H4 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Engineers use knowledge of science and technology, together with strategies of design, to solve practical problems. Scientific knowledge provides a means of estimating what the behavior of things will be even before they are made. Moreover, science often suggests new kinds of behavior that had not even been imagined before, and so leads to new technologies.
3C/E3 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Transportation, communications, nutrition, sanitation, health care, entertainment, and other technologies give large numbers of people today the goods and services that once were luxuries enjoyed only by the wealthy. These benefits are not equally available to everyone.
3C/H2 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Some scientists and engineers are comfortable working in situations in which some secrecy is required, but others prefer not to do so. It is generally regarded as a matter of individual choice and ethics, not one of professional ethics.
3C/H3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): In deciding on proposals to introduce new technologies or curtail existing ones, some key questions arise concerning possible alternatives, who benefits and who suffers, financial and social costs, possible risks, resources used (human, material, or energy), and waste disposal.
3C/H4 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The human species has a major impact on other species in many ways: reducing the amount of the earth's surface available to those other species, interfering with their food sources, changing the temperature and chemical composition of their habitats, introducing foreign species into their ecosystems, and altering organisms directly through selective breeding and genetic engineering.
3C/H6 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The human ability to influence the course of history comes from its capacity for generating knowledge and developing new technologies—and for communicating ideas to others.
3C/M4 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Technology is largely responsible for the great revolutions in agriculture, manufacturing, sanitation and medicine, warfare, transportation, information processing, and communications that have radically changed how people live and work.
3C/M7 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Societies influence what aspects of technology are developed and how these are used. People control technology (as well as science) and are responsible for its effects.
5B/M3 ( Grades: 6-8 ): New varieties of cultivated plants and domestic animals have resulted from selective breeding for particular traits.
5F/M1 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Small differences between parents and offspring can accumulate (through selective breeding) in successive generations so that descendants are very different from their ancestors.
6A/M6 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Technologies having to do with food production, sanitation, and health care have dramatically changed how people live and work and have resulted in rapid increases in the human population.
6B/H4 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The development and use of technologies to sustain, prolong, or terminate life raise social, moral, ethical, and legal issues.
6C/H5 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Some drugs mimic or block the molecules involved in communication between cells and therefore affect operations of the brain and body.
6E/E4 ( Grades: 3-5 ): There are some diseases that human beings can catch only once. After they've recovered, they don't get sick from them again. There are many diseases that can be prevented by injecting people with killed or weakened germs so that people don't catch the diseases even once.
6E/H3a ( Grades: 9-12 ): New medical techniques, efficient health care delivery systems, improved diet and sanitation, and a fuller understanding of the nature of health and disease give today's human beings a better chance of staying healthy than their ancestors had.
6E/M5 ( Grades: 6-8 ): The environment may contain dangerous levels of substances that are harmful to human beings. Therefore, the good health of individuals requires monitoring the soil, air, and water and taking steps to make them safe.
6E/P3 ( Grades: K-2 ): Some diseases are caused by germs, some are not. Diseases caused by germs may be spread by people who have them. Washing one's hands with soap and water reduces the number of germs that can get into the body or that can be passed on to other people.
7D/M1 ( Grades: 6-8 ): There are trade-offs that each person must consider in making choices—about personal popularity, health, family relations, and education, for example—that often have lifelong consequences.
8A/H1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): New varieties of farm plants and animals have been engineered by manipulating their genetic instructions to produce new characteristics.
8A/M2 ( Grades: 6-8 ): People control some characteristics of plants and animals they raise by selective breeding and by preserving varieties of seeds (old and new) to use if growing conditions change.
8B/H2 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Waste management includes considerations of quantity, safety, degradability, and cost. It requires social and technological innovations, because waste-disposal problems are political and economic as well as technical.
8B/H7 ( Grades: 9-12 ): The development of new materials and the increased use of existing materials by a growing human population have led to the removal of resources from the environment much more rapidly than they can be replaced by natural processes. Disposal of waste materials has also become a problem. Solving these problems requires systematic efforts involving both social and technological innovations.
8F/H1 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Owing to the large amount of information that computers can process, they are playing an increasingly larger role in medicine. They are used to analyze data and to keep track of and communicate diagnostic information about individuals and statistical information on the distribution and spread of various maladies in populations.
8F/H3 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Knowledge of genetics is opening whole new fields of health care. In diagnosis, mapping of genetic instructions in cells makes it possible to detect defective genes that may lead to poor health. In treatment, substances from genetically engineered organisms may reduce the cost and side effects of replacing missing body chemicals.
8F/H4 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Inoculations use weakened germs (or parts of them) to stimulate the body's immune system to react. This reaction prepares the body to fight subsequent invasions by actual germs of that type. Some inoculations last for life.
8F/H5 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Knowledge of molecular structure and interactions aids in synthesizing new drugs and predicting their effects.
8F/H7 ( Grades: 9-12 ): Biotechnology has contributed to health improvement in many ways, but its cost and application have led to a variety of controversial social and ethical issues.
8F/M1 ( Grades: 6-8 ): Sanitation measures such as the use of sewers, landfills, isolation, and safe food handling are important in controlling the spread of organisms that cause disease. Improving sanitation to prevent disease has contributed more to saving human life than any advance in medical treatment.
8F/M2 ( Grades: 6-8 ): The ability to measure the level of substances in body fluids has made it possible for physicians to better diagnose illnesses and monitor the effects of the treatments they prescribe.
8F/M4 ( Grades: 6-8 ): # As the knowledge of how cells in the body detect and fight invaders has grown, the transplantation of tissue or whole organs has become increasingly common. New materials that are durable and less likely to be rejected by the immune system now make it possible to replace some body parts and to implant devices for electrically pacing the heart, sensing internal conditions, or slowly dispensing drugs at optimal times.
8F/P1a ( Grades: K-2 ): Vaccinations and other scientific treatments are used to protect people from getting certain diseases.